Tuesday, 20 November 2012

We need your help!

The Museum of Dartmoor Life is currently conducting a public consultation to find out what members of the generally public think of the museum. Do you like our displays? Think we need better lights? Do you want more events? Let us know, any feedback positive and negative will be gratefully received. Your feedback is very valuable and helps us to increase visitor enjoyment and to make your experience more interesting.

Surveys can be completed - online, just follow this link surveymonkey.com/s/2KB25JD
                                         -  by paper version available in the museum

Surveys need to be completed by the 1st of December.

Thanks for your help!

Updates

So many exciting things for all ages have been happening at the museum over the past few months.

Recently we held a spooky Halloween Fun Day. Children got to hear scary stories and got to make their own creepy bats.

We held a Wine and Wisdom evening in October in aid of the museum, which went down well.

The Camera Club also held a display in the John Young Gallery in September. Beautiful pictures were up on display. (If you want to have your own display up in the museum or are looking for a space to work with a group, why not contact the museum? Details of the John Young Gallery and how to book are on the museum's website at http://www.museumofdartmoorlife.co.uk/gallery_for_hire.html).

The museum also partnered with Okehampton Rotary Club to produce a time capsule. The capsule is on display in the museum and will stay there for another 50 years! The time capsule conceals our views and values in the 21st Century and provides a way to educated the future, as well as reminding ourselves of the life and society we now live in.
The museum is also participating in Cards for Good Causes again this year. Cards are available for purchase in the museum reception and will be available for sale until the 15th of December. Money from cards sold goes to different charities.



Sunday, 2 September 2012

September's Famous Devonian


Henry Austin Dobson is September’s famous Devonian. Dobson was born in Plymouth on the 18th January 1840 and was a poet and essayist.

Dobson was the son of an engineer. In December 1856 Dobson entered the Board of Trade and rose to the rank of principal in the harbour department.[1] He retired from this position in the autumn of 1901.

Dobson is particularly remembered for his use of French verse forms, such as the chant royal, the virelai nouveau, the triolet and the rondel.[2] Whilst his official carer was uneventful, he became a distinguished poet and biographer, those who study his work are often struck by his maturity.[3]

An example of a Dobson triolet is A kiss-
               Rose kissed me today.
               Will she kiss me tomorrow?
   Let it be as it may,
               Rose kissed me today.
               But the pleasure gives way
               To a savour of sorrow;-
               Rose kissed me today,
               Will she kiss me tomorrow?

From 1885 Dobson focused mainly on critical and biographical prose. He wrote biographies on Henry Fielding, Thomas Bewick, Oliver Goldsmith, Horace Walpole and William Hogarth. These studies are ‘marked alike by assiduous research, sympathetic presentation and sound criticisim’.[4]

Dobson passed away on the 2nd September 1921. He is buried in grave number 7800 in the Westminster Cemetery, Uxbridge Road, Middlesex.[5]


[1]- Poet’s Graves, ‘Henry Austin Dobson’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.poetsgraves.co.uk/dobson.htm. (Accessed 21/08/2012).
[2]- Poet’s Graves, ‘Henry Austin Dobson’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.poetsgraves.co.uk/dobson.htm. (Accessed 21/08/2012).
[3]- Poem Hunter, ‘The Biography of Henry Austin Dobson’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.poemhunter.com/henry-austin-dobson/biography/. (Accessed 21/08/2012).
[4]- Poem Hunter, ‘The Biography of Henry Austin Dobson’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.poemhunter.com/henry-austin-dobson/biography/. (Accessed 21/08/2012).
[5]- Poet’s Graves, ‘Henry Austin Dobson’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.poetsgraves.co.uk/dobson.htm. (Accessed 21/08/2012).

Thursday, 23 August 2012

Mystery Item No 7

Up for a few days here is another mystery item. Can you guess what it is?


Thursday, 16 August 2012

Adopt a Museum

So the museum has just been adopted!

Adopt a Museum is a site where people can 'adopt' their favorite or a deserving museum. The twist is that the museum can't be a well known museum or one that regularly features in Top Ten Museum lists, so no British Museum or the Louvre. As the website states, you don't actually adopt the museum, their is no sponsorship or money involved, you just become a champion for that museum. You can read more about Adopt a Museum and apply to adopt your favorite museum here- http://adopt.museum140.com/about/ Museums can be adopted all around the world, so far museums in Asia, Switzerland, Canada, America and Wales have been featured. What a fantastic way to give a bit of help to these smaller museums who are often missed!  

The Museum of Dartmoor Life got adopted this week, so thank you! http://adopt.museum140.com/2012/08/14/47-museum-of-dartmoor-life/ We are glad to see that people enjoy coming to the museum, that they think we have lots to do and that we are good value for money. 

Thursday, 9 August 2012

Family Fun Day

Just wanted to say a huge thank you to all those who came along to our family fun day on Saturday the 4th August. 

We had a range of activities available this day- from dressing up in Victorians and Bronze Age costumes, making your own mosaics and bracelets, being a spy for the day and guess the mystery objects.

We hope you all had a great time and we look forward to seeing you at our next event!

Sunday, 5 August 2012

August Devonian

August’s famous Devonian is Thomas Newcomen (24th February 1664 – 5th August 1792). Born in Dartmouth he was an inventor, most famous for the first practical steam engine, which was invented in 1712.

Newcomen's house in Dartmouth.[1]

Newcomen established himself as an ironmonger in his hometown. Some of his customers were Cornish tin mine owners who faced difficulties when their mines flooded. The methods to remove the water, such as buckets on a rope, were slow and laborious so an alternative method was sought. Newcomen was aware of the high costs involved with using horse power to pump water, so he went into partnership with Thomas Savery, an English inventor, to try to find a solution.[2]  Savery had already created a steam engine and had obtained numerous patents, alongside this this association Newcomen manufactured engines of his own design.[3] Newcomens pump used a vacuum inside a cylinder, which pulled down a piston, a lever was then used to transfer the force to the pump shaft that went down the mine.[4] 

Newcomen's first working engine was installed at Dudley Castle in Staffordshire in 1712. It had 'a cylinder 21 inches in diameter and nearly eight feet long, and it worked at 12 strokes per minute, raising ten gallons of water from a depth of 156 feet- approximately 5.5 horse power'.[5] Newcomen's engine had a massive effect, not only was it innovative in its water pumping ability, but the engine also 'demonstrated the profound effect machines could have on production'.[6] LTC Rolt's book on Newcomen, Thomas Newcomen: The Prehistory of Steam was published in 1963 and sums up his achievement, 'in the whole history of technology it would be difficult to find a greater single advance than this, nor one with a greater significance for all humanity'.[7]

Relavitvely little is known about Newcomen's later life. By the time of his death in 1792 over 100 of his engines had been installed in the mining districts of Britain.[8] Newcomen died on the 5th August 1792 and was buried in Bunhill Fields, London, although the exact location is unknown. 



[1] Grace's Guide British Industrial History, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2007. [Online] Available from:  www.gracesguide.co.uk/Thomas_Newcomen. (Accessed 28/07/2012).
[2] Start Your Engines, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2012. [Online] Available from: www.library.thinkquest.org/C006011/english/sites/newcomen_bio.php3?v=2. (Accessed 28/07/2012). 
[3] Start Your Engines, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2012. [Online] Available from: www.library.thinkquest.org/C006011/english/sites/newcomen_bio.php3?v=2. (Accessed 28/07/2012). 
[4] BBC, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2012. [Online] Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newcomen_thomas.shtml. (Accessed 28/07/2012). 
[5] BBC, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2012. [Online] Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newcomen_thomas.shtml. (Accessed 28/07/2012). 
[6] Hero's, 'The Top 100 Hero's of Western Culture', 2009. [Online] Available from:  www.westerncultureglobal.org/newcomen.html. (Accessed 28/07/2012).
[7] Grace's Guide British Industrial History, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2007. [Online] Available from:  www.gracesguide.co.uk/Thomas_Newcomen. (Accessed 28/07/2012).
[8] Grace's Guide British Industrial History, 'Thomas Newcomen', 2007. [Online] Available from:  www.gracesguide.co.uk/Thomas_Newcomen. (Accessed 28/07/2012).

Wednesday, 25 July 2012

Julys devonian

July's famous Devonian is Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the English poet, Romantic, literary critic and philosopher. Born in Ottery St. May on the 21st October 1772, he became one of the most 'Influential and controversial figures of the Romantic period'. [1]  

His signature. [2].
The son of a Reverend he entered Jesus college Cambridge in 1791, here he joined in the reformist movement stimulated by the French Revolution, and in 1793 he abandoned his studies.[3] He enlisted in the 15th Light Dragoons under the name of Silas Tomkin, some say because of rising debts and issues in his love life. However, he soon he realized that he was unfit for an army career and he was brought out under 'insanity' clause by his brother.[4] In October of 1795 Coleridge married Sarah Fricker, and took up his residence at Clevedon on the Bristol Channel.[5] His close friend William Wordsworth married Sarah’s sister Mary in 1802. It was around 1796 that Coleridge started taking Laudanum as a pain-reliever, for ailments including toothache and facial neuralgia, this would soon become an disruptive addiction in Coleridge’s life.

Coleridge's career as a poet and writer were established after he befriended Wordsworth. Together they produced the Lyrical Ballads in 1798. Coleridge contributed four poems to the collections, including one of his most famous works, 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner', a 625 line ballad published in 1798. It tells the story of a sailor who kills an albatross and for this crime against nature the sailor suffers terrible punishments.

And every tongue, through utter drought,

Was withered at the root;
We could not speak, no more than if
We had been choked with soot. 
(II.33)
For most of his adult life Coleridge suffered with addiction to opium and laudanum, some of his works present supernatural themes and exotic images, perhaps related to his use of drugs.[6] His much-admired poem "Kubla Khan" was inspired by a dream vision in an opium-induced state. His addiction and pain led to near suicide, separation from his wife in 1808, and estrangement from his children.[7]
Coleridge died on the 25th July 1834 from heart failure. He is buried at St. Michael’s Church, Highgate, London. Coleridge's legacy has been ‘tainted with accusations of plagiarism, both in his poetry and critical essays; he had a propensity for leaving projects unfinished and suffered from large debts. But, such was the originality of his early work, that his place and influence within the Romantic period is undisputed’.[8] 'Kubla Khan' and 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' are known as ‘two of the greatest poems in English literature and perfected a mode of sensuous lyricism that is often echoed by later poets’.[9]


Samuel Taylor Coleridge. [10].



[1] BBC Arts, ‘The Romantics’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/arts/romantics/coleridge.shtml. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[2] Wikipedia, 'Samuel Taylor Coleridge', 2012. [Online] Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[3] Books and Writers, Samuel Taylor Coleridge’, 2008. [Online] Available from: www.kirjasto.sci.fi/coleridg.htm. (Accessed  27?06/2012).
[4] Books and Writers, Samuel Taylor Coleridge’, 2008. [Online] Available from: www.kirjasto.sci.fi/coleridg.htm. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[5] NNDB Tracking the Entire World, 'Samuel Taylor Coleridge', 2012. [Online] Available from: www.nndb.com/people/852/000024780/. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[6] BBC Arts, ‘The Romantics’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/arts/romantics/coleridge.shtml. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[7] New World Encyclopaedia, ‘Samuel Taylor Coleridge’, 2012. [Online] Available from:  www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[8] BBC Arts, ‘The Romantics’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/arts/romantics/coleridge.shtml. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[9] Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition, ‘Samuel Taylor Coleridge’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/125261/Samuel-Taylor-Coleridge. (Accessed 27/06/2012).
[10] Wikipedia, 'Samuel Taylor Coleridge', 2012. [Online] Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge. (Accessed 27/06/2012).

Monday, 23 July 2012

The People's Record


The poster design for the upcoming People's Record Exhibition. Running from Thursday the 26th July to Wednesday the 29th August. The event is going to be opened by torch runner Andy Vallance! 
Don't miss it

Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Exhibitions at the Museum

So, a lot has been happening at the museum recently. Currently the Puzzle Tree Painters exhibition is on display at the museum. This is only running for a short amount of time, the 5th July to the 16th July, so make sure you don't miss it. It displays a wonderful range of paintings, which were inspired by the imagination, other artists and Simmons Park. Puzzle Tree is a day service for people with learning disabilities and is a worthwhile cause. For more details on Puzzle Tree paintings visit http://www.artannageorghiou.info/ or see Tom French's review of the exhibition at http://www.okehampton-today.co.uk/news.cfm?id=24309&searchword=museum of dartmoor .


The museum is also busy creating the People's Record Exhibition, which will run from the 23rd of July until the end of August. The exhibition focuses on the Olympics and looks at the Britain during previous British Olympic host years,1908 and 1948. The exhibition has been given the 'London 2012 Inspire Mark' by the organisers of the games, LOCOG. Things have changed a lot since then and now. There will be much to see here, with scoreboards, Olympic records and lots of Olympic themed games and activities. Any one fancy making your own medal or seeing if you could break some Olympic records? We also need your help with this one. Any pictures you have of the Olympic torch relay passing through Okehampton would be very much appreciated and we'll show them in the museum as part of our display. You can either hand them into the museum or email them to paul@dartmoormuseum.co.uk.



The People's Record - Olympic Exhibition is to be officially opened by Andy Vallance, who was a touch runner this year. Andy carried the flame through Torquay on the 20th May. You can read about Andy's story at www.london2012.com/torch-relay/torchbearers/torchbearers=andrew-vallance-1299/index.html


Summer activities at the museum are also be designed and finalised. So if the kids are bored, you want to learn something about the local area or you're looking for something to do on a typical rainy summers day, come and visit us at the museum!

Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Mystery Item No 6

This month’s mystery item is...a clothes mangle.
Image of the museum's mangle


During the Victorian period some devices were invented to ease household tasks, by the 19th Century small domestic mangles were being developed and became very popular.[1] Before this time it was only large houses with laundry facilities or laundry services who used this type of equipment.[2] A mangle is a mechanical laundry aid which was used to squeeze water out of wet laundry. Powered by hand the handle would turn the two rollers, which were attached by cogs, which would wring out the water. The rollers were normally made out of beech or maple wood, however by the beginning of the 20th Century rubber rolls were introduced. Our mangle is made by a company in Devon. With two wooden rollers, its metal frame work has been painted green and reads ‘James Wright Okehampton’.


Close up of the flower design on the side of the mangle
The Engineer’s and Mechanic’s Encyclopaedia describes a mangle as
a domestic machine of great utility employed in smoothening linen, as a substitute for the heated irons extensively used for the same purpose. In the common mangle, as most of our readers well know, the linen or other articles to be mangled, are wrapped round wooden rollers, which are upon a solid level bed or floor, and upon the rollers is placed a large oblong box which is filled with stones, or other heavy substances, in order that they may press with great force upon the rollers, while the box is moved backwards and forwards upon them, by means of a handle attached to an upper roller or windlass, to which straps from each end of the moving box are attached. By this machine, the operation of mangling is very well done, but the labour is excessive on account of the necessity of frequently arresting and changing the motion of the heavy box.[3]
The first version of the mangle was the Box Mangle, which consisted of a heavy box on rollers which was pushed across laundry; this was developed during the 17th Century.[4] This process would have been a laborious task involving at least two people. By the 18th and 19th Century’s new mangle ideas were being developed in order to make the process easier. Systems using gears, leavers and handles were introduced in order to make it a less laborious job and easier for one person to do.


Image of a box mangle.[5]
In this time clothes and linens were washed in tubs, with a ‘dolly’ being used to wash the clothes. A dolly is a pole with one end shaped like a cone or a three legged stool. This was plunged into the boiling water with the clothes to help remove dirt. The later invention of washboards were quicker and easier to use than the dollies, and involved rubbing the laundry against the metal rungs. The washing was then wrung out through the mangle and hung out to dry. This was a long and laborious process, so the invention of the washing machine must have been very welcomed.
Many of the items needed to wash clothes can be seen at the museum, so if you are in the area why not come in and have a look!




[1] Object Lessons, ‘Clothes Wringer, Victorian, Original’, 2012. [Online] Available from:  www.objectlessons.org/houses-and-homes-victorians/clothes-wringer-victorian-original/s59/a936/. (Accessed 18/06/12).
[2] Object Lessons, ‘Clothes Wringer, Victorian, Original’, 2012. [Online] Available from:  www.objectlessons.org/houses-and-homes-victorians/clothes-wringer-victorian-original/s59/a936/. (Accessed 18/06/12).
[3] Hebert, L. (1838) The Engineer’s and Mechanics Encyclopaedia Volume II. London: Thomas Kelly: 125-126.
[4] Wise Geek, ‘What is a Mangle?’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-mangle.htm. (Accessed 18/06/12).  
[5] Old and Interesting, ‘Box Mangles’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.oldandinteresting.com/box-mangles.aspx. (Accessed 18/06/12).
A Day in the Life, ‘Washing Day’, 2012. [Online] Available from: http://a-day-in-the-life.powys.org.uk/eng/home/eo_wash.php. (Accessed 18/06/12).

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Mystery Item No 6

Here is July's Mystery Item. Managed to get a clearer picture this month! Good luck. 



Don't forget you can guess the item here on the blog, on our Twitter page (@dartmoorlife) or on our Facebook page by searching Museum of Dartmoor Life.

Saturday, 30 June 2012

June's Famous Devonian

June’s famous Devonian is John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) who was born in Barnstable. He is most famous as being the author of The Beggar’s Opera, a work distinguished by good-humored satire and technical assurance.[1] John Gay is credited with the first success of the ballad opera genre.[2]


John Gay. [3]
Gay attended the Grammar School in Barnstable and upon leaving school he was apprentices to a silk mercer in London. Disliking the work, Gay left the merchant to work briefly for Arthur Hill, who became manager of a theatre company. In 1712, in his late twenties, Gay was a secretary to the Duchess of Monmouth and even worked as a secretary to Lord Clarendon.[4] His first important poem, Rural Sports, appeared in 1713. This is a ‘descriptive and didactic work’ in two short books dealing with hunting and fishing, but containing also ‘descriptions of the countryside and meditations on the Horatian theme of retirement’.[5]


The Beggar's Opera. [6]

The Beggar’s Opera was produced in London on the 29th January 1728 by John Rich at Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre and ran for 62 performances. Narrated by the beggar himself, it is a story of thieves and highwaymen and centers around love triangle between the highwayman Macheath, his fence's daughter Polly and the jailer's daughter Lucy (who is pregnant with his child). It was intended to ‘mirror the moral degradation of society and, more particularly, to caricature the prime minister Sir Robert Walpole and his Whig administration’.[7] It soon became very popular and throughout the Eighteenth Century and was staged ‘just about everywhere in the English speaking world where room could be found to put up a stage’.[8]
''Sure men were born to lie, and women to believe them!''
John Gay (1685-1732), British dramatist. Lucy, in The Beggar's Opera, act 2, sc. 13.

Gay lost most of his money after investing in the disastrous South Sea Stock, leaving behind £6,000 when he died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Life is a jest, and all things show it.
I thought it once, and now I know it.

(John Gay's self-written epitaph).[9]



[1] Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Version, ‘John Gay’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/227376/John-Gay. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[2] Eighteenth Century English Website, ‘The Beggar’s Opera’, 2002. [Online] Available from: www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/beggars_opera/. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[3] Wikipedia, ‘John Gay’, 2012. [Online] Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gay. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[4] Eighteenth Century English Website, ‘The Beggar’s Opera’, 2002. [Online] Available from: www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/beggars_opera/. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[5] Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Version, ‘John Gay’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/227376/John-Gay. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[6] Daily Post (London, England), Wednesday, February 14, 1728; Issue 2620.
[7] Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Version, ‘John Gay’, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/227376/John-Gay. (Accessed 26/05/12).
[8] Winton, C. (1993) John Gay and the London Theatre, The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, KY : 169.
[9] The Contemplator’s Short History of John Gay and the Beggar’s Opera, 2012. [Online] Available from: www.contemplator.com/history/johngay.html. (Accessed 26/05/12).

Monday, 18 June 2012

June Inventions

On the 4th June 1963 patent No 3,091,888 was granted to six-year-old Robert Patch for a toy truck.[1] The idea was to create a toy truck which could be easily assembled and disassemble by children and could change into different types of truck. Kind of like a modern Transformers toy.


Truck Patent Image. [1]

The 9th June 1953 saw the patent for the manufacture of soft surface cured cheese granted, No 2,641,545.[2] This was developed by John Kraft and it was not the first time Kraft had been involved with cheese. In 1903 L.J Kraft started a wholesale cheese business in Chicago, selling cheese from the back of a horse drawn wagon, by 1914 their first cheese factory in Illinois opened and within a year the factory had began producing cheese in tins.[3] These cheese tins were provided for the armed forces during World War 1. 1950 saw the production of Kraft Deluxe process cheese slices, which were the first commercially packaged processed cheese.[4] The year of 1952 saw Cheez Whiz, a pasteurised processed cheese spread, come onto the market.[5] However, the 1953 soft surface cured cheese patent, as mentioned above,  focused on making the separation of the soft cheese from the exterior easier, as ‘few customers eat both the mould pad and the soft interior’.[6] The difficulties in separating the two parts of the cheese is ‘naturally of considerable annoyance to the consumer, as well as an ultimate waste of edible cheese’.[7]


Cheese Patent Image. [2]

Now something which the majority of us will have in our homes...medicine bottles. It is the child lock top which we are looking at here. Patented on 5th June 1984 the ‘Safety Cap for Medicine Bottle’ No 4,452,364 was granted to Ronald Kay.[8] Originally the device served as a detection device to see whether medicines had been tampered with, ‘efforts are being made to seal the contents such that a purchaser would easily be able to detect whether or not tampering had occurred’.[9] This kind of device has also kept children safe as well, as the lock cap creates a barrier to them.



[1] Google Patents, ‘3, 091, 888’, 2011. [Online] Available from:  www.google.com/patents?id=JV5oAAAAEBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=3,091,888&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=2#v=onepage&q=3%2C091%2C888&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[2] Google Patents, ‘No 2, 641, 545’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.google.com/patents?id=OqZvAAAAEBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=2,641,545&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=1#v=onepage&q=2%2C641%2C545&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[3] Kraft Foods, ‘History’, 2008. [Online] Available from:  www.kraftfoodscompany.com/About/history/index.aspx. (Accessed 12/05/2012).
[4] Inventors, ‘The History of Kraft Foods’, 2012. [Online] Available from:  www.inventors.about.com/od/foodrelatedinventions/a/kraft_foods_2.htm. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[5] Inventors, ‘The History of Kraft Foods’, 2012. [Online] Available from:  www.inventors.about.com/od/foodrelatedinventions/a/kraft_foods_2.htm. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[6] Google Patents, ‘No 2, 641, 545’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.google.com/patents?id=OqZvAAAAEBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=2,641,545&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=1#v=onepage&q=2%2C641%2C545&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[7] Google Patents, ‘No 2, 641, 545’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.google.com/patents?id=OqZvAAAAEBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=2,641,545&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=1#v=onepage&q=2%2C641%2C545&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/12).
[8] Google Patents, ‘No4, 452, 364’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.google.com/patents?id=xGw5AAAAEBAJ&pg=PA4&dq=Safety+Cap+for+Medicine+Bottle+ininventor:ronald+ininventor:kay&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/2012).
[9] Google Patents, ‘No4, 452, 364’, 2011. [Online] Available from: www.google.com/patents?id=xGw5AAAAEBAJ&pg=PA4&dq=Safety+Cap+for+Medicine+Bottle+ininventor:ronald+ininventor:kay&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false. (Accessed 12/05/2012).